The meaning of Bhisma is illusion form of father, life till end, all the armies died but he was alive sevearly wounded. Finally Bhismapitama died as per his own fixed timing. Guru Dronacarya was killed by Dhrstadyumna.

Sankumar S
39 min readMay 10, 2021

Chapter- 1

Pledge of Dhrtarastra

Dhrtarastra inquired! O Sanjaya, My sons and sons of Pandu determined for war assembled in the “Dhramksetra” holy-place at Kuruksetra did what? (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/01)

Karovas and Pandavas were brother of royal dynasty. Karovas had cheated Pandava in gambling and had ceases their entire empire, humiliated their wife Dropadi in presence of all in court and forced Pandavas to live in exile for twelve years and one year in secrete living totally unknown by the society. After completion of exile when Pandavas asked to return their empire Karovas refused to do so without war. Karovas were expecting that no one will support them because of fear of their power of global diplomacy and Pandavas were religious therefore they will not like to fight war with own relatives. Adamant Duryodhana has turned down all the proposals of peace making of several kings, saints and even Lord Krishna and humiliated them stubbornly. Pandu who were in the beginning hesitating to fight battle, with the development of various circumstances and blessed by mother Kunti, people and Lord Krishna finally decided to fight war and received enthusiastic readily support from several tribes across the world those who were oppressed by the dictator sovereignty of Karovas and of many others who were having concern about it. These developments was unexpected and surprising for many including the camp of Karovas and Dhrtarasta the father of Karovas . Thus the disputes between the brothers merely become excuse for cause for world war between oppressor class and oppressed class under the shelter of Lord Krishna the Divine-God. Therefore one should read theistic science Bhagavad-Gita very scrutinizing according to the direction of speaker the Divine-God.

Kuruksetra is a place where several Demi-Gods, saints have performed religious rituals and King Kuru had also performed religious ritual there. Therefore, this holy place is called Kuruksetra. Kuruksetra was selected for battle by discussing with various knowledgeable people thinking that battle at holy place will allow people to perform war-form virtue and realize worldly and heavenly benefit.

While referring Kuruksetra it gives the feeling that the warning brothers have assemble to fight battle for territory. However, referring first “Dhramksetra” holy-place it builds relation with virtue. It is tradition to take the name of religion in initiating any deed. Following principle of religion in performing any deed including war facilitate execution of religious ritual and liberate the participants. The lesson of Mahabharata is that whatever human undertake deed it should take consider of religion, benefit of all, not for own pleasure and happiness and referring the subject of responsibility and irresponsibility to scriptures (16/24).

Agree on to fight war armies of both the camps of Karovas and Pandavas has reach battlefield. However, materialistic demoniac Duryodhana was especially interested in war, with sole objective to enjoy kingdom and continue to do whimsical acts, at any cost and any means. Duryodhana has the nature to opt forbidden deed without any hesitating.

Dhrtarastra has unequal feeling for his own son and sons of his brother Pandu. He being elder does not made any sincere effort to settle family feud and establish peace. This has lead to inhalation of his family. The lesson is very clear that human shall never have the feeling of “they belong to me and they does not belong to me”, this only brake peace and cause conflict. Though it was not expected that Pandavs would fight, Dhrtarastra was eager to know what his sons and sons of his brother are doing in battle field. He wanted to know everything of battle field.

When war become inevitable, knowing in which several solders will die, Saint Vedvaysa gave special blessing to Sanjaya, a minister in court, with divine vision through which he can see events of far distance, know what is in the mind of people and can listen voice of people from distance, so that he can narrate the observed incidents to King Dhrtarastra who was blind. After ten day spending in battle field when Bhismapithama was wounded and lying upon the arrow bed, Sanjaya came to Hastinapur to share the information with King Dhrtarastra. On hearing the injury of Bhismapithama, Dhrtarastra became sad and asked all the information.

The battlefield of Kuruksetra, is also secret because from here only Divine-God has spoken the guideline of mankind. The word dharma-ksetra holy place is particularly significant because of presence of Divine-God personally in battle field in favor of Pandavas. Dhrtarastra was fearful about the influence of holy place on the outcome of the battle. He was also alarmed of Pandavas for being strong adherence of religion.

Human body is “ ksetra” or part of nature. The influence of property of “Satvik-Rajash-Tamsh” produced from nature keep on human to function. When there is influence of “devi” divine property the body become “Dhramaksetra” holy place otherwise the influence of ‘Asuri” demoniac property make human body “Kuruksetra”, the other meaning of Kuru is to do. As long human is influence by nature he is bonded with function. The “ ksetra” or nature form body has been explain as comprising ten nerves-senses, mind, intelligence, ego, and abnormalities like affection, hate, greed, angry, violence, and “Satvik-Rajash-Tamsh Gun”. Human body is a part of nature and battlefield of divine property and demoniac property. The world history is full of battles, those who won war of material world does not get victory over birth-death cycle. Those who control the mind and nature and realise the sovereignty beyond mortal nature and enter into it and he is the real winner. The Bhagwad Gita awaken the mind of human to understand the internal battle in nerves-mind of human-being and battle between people influenced by nature and people those who know the nature and have renounced the nature.

Dhrtarastra attached with affection and hate etc. mentally also blind worried about the future of his stubborn sons was listening incidents of battle field from Sanjaya who was unattached from affection and hate etc. The delivery of Sanjaya was value based thus not as per the expectation of Dhrtarastra. The meaning of Dhrtarastra is rastra-nation of Dhristda- evil.

While reading and listening scriptures all human does not understand message in same way, due to their respective “Satvik-Divine, Rajash-Meterialistic, Tamsh-Demoniac” property. Therefore it is wise to sustaing reading and listning scriptures which in turn will keep on changes in nature and understanding and acquaring increasing divine property and becoming eligible to get liberation from birth-death cycle.

Pledge of Sanjaya

Sanjaya stated ! At that time looking at the army of Pandavs arranged in elephant shape King Duryodhana went to Guru Dronacarya and spoke this diplomatic speech. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/02)

Dhrtarastra has first inquired about act of his sons thus accordingly Sanjaya is first explaining the movements of Karovas in battlefield. The army of Pandavas were well organised in huge gigantic shape, highly determined with common vission to dethrone the dictorship of Karovas, with the blessing of religion and Divine-God. The affect of military arrengement of the Pandavas was highly impresive upon the opponent including Duryodhana, he felt unease and alarmed on the possible fallout and he felt utmost crucial to gain confidance of “Guru” Spiritual-Master Dronacarya and Bhismapitama.

Duryodhana has been addressed as King because Dhrtarastra was king for name shake, in all practical purpose Duryodhana was managing all the affairs of state and he was the main cause of war.

The porpose of shrewd Duryodhana to contact Guru Dronacarya and seeking his favour was to instigate hate in the mind of Guru Dronacarya against Pandavas for his own vested interest. The meaning of Dronacarya is behave of divine and meaning of Duryodhana is polluted with influence of wealth.

Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama both were neutral, and giving importance to the views of both Karovas and Pandavas. Arjuna was very favorite of Guru Dronacarya this was big concern for the Duryodhana, whether Guru Dronacarya will fight full heartly in his favour? He thought that later on he will manage Bhismapitama on family line, first to approach Guru Dronacarya with showing lot of respect. People generally approach showing great respect to a person who is not in agree with him and there is lack of adoreable relationship.

To show his respect to Guru Dronacarya it was protocall to go to him and salute him. Also Guru Dronacarya was one of the key warrior in the camp of Karovas therefore, it was not wise to call Guru Dronacarya to convey his message, in absent of key commander army might be in disarray.

The Duryodhana who is polluted with material wealth, watching well presented holy army of Pandavas under Divine Shelter, gauging the seriousness of the situation rushed to Guru Dronacarya and to influence him delivered a motivated deplomatic dialogue to ensure his effective support in war.

Sanjay knowing the motive of asking question from Dhrtarastra, who was always favoring all right and wrong desires and deeds of his own sons and has a strong desire to see his son triumph in war, therefore in the begining itself he is indicating to King that no compromise was made in the battle field and worst is that united motivated army of Pandavas has made his stubborn dictator sons nervous and worried.

On the other side still at battleground there was differences of opinion in Karovas, whereas Dhrtarastra, Duryodhana and Dushasan were in favor of war, Bhismapitama and Guru Dronacarya were in against to it.

O My teacher! look upon the extensive army of sons of Pandu, skillfully strategically arranged by your intelligent disciple Dhristadyumna son of Drupada. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/03)

Shrewd Duryodhana is addressing Guru Dronacarya as Acarya –Teacher to realise him as teacher of both the parties Karovas, Pandavas, he should be unbaised, and to fight war without any sympathy for Pandavas.

To exploit the sentiment of Guru Dronacarya he is stating that his student has arranged army meticulously to defeit and kill his own Guru-Teacher, from whom he has learn the art of war.

King Drupada father of Draupadi who was wife of Arjuna had long standing quarrel, the clash motivated King Drupada to perform yogna-ritual to be blessed by son who would kill Guru Dronacarya to settle the score. A received a son in post ritual , who was called Dhristadyumna. Surprisingly knowing all these fact liberal Guru Dronacarya, excepted Dhristadyumna as his student and did not hesitatd in imparting his all military expertise. Meaning of Dhristadyumna is in mind complete faith on Divine Spirite. Duryodhana is trying to point out the mistake which Guru Dronacarya has committed by this way, and expected that Guru Dronacarya will be alert, not to be lenient while fighting.

Duryodhana could have called the name of Dhristadyumna directly but he deliberatelly called Dhristadyumna as a son of Drupada to awake up revenge feeling in the mind of Guru Dronacarya by reminding their old fued.

Duryodhana tried very well to divert the mind of Guru Dronacarya that he has caused war to his traditional enmity with King Drupada and to generate feeling of hate and revenge, by indicating that Pandavas has so many brave outstanding warriors, however deliberately Pandavas have chosed Dhristadyumna as chief of their army whose family has taken pledge to eleminate Guru Dronacarya. This is an act of disrespect and humiliation of Guru Dronacarya by Pandava.

Though the Karovas has eleven ochohini regiments of army and Pandavas has only seven ochohini regiments of army. One ochohini military regiment consist of 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 64,610 horses and 1,09, 350 foot soldiers. However, the army of Pandavas was arranged in such a way that they were also looking sizeable. Duryodhana has very well understood that it would be blunder to underestimate united army of Pandavas, in which everyone is with same objective.

Hidden purpose of Duryodhana was to communicate to win war against the disciple is not a difficult factor for Guru Dronacarya and he should think and act immidiatelly seeing the gross warning situation. Mature Guru Dronacarya was unaffected from the misleading communication and maintained his calmness balance.

Here in army of Pandava there is great-great warriors like Auyudhana, Virata and Drupada, those who have big-big bow and are similar to one who can facilitate habitat in divine like adherent form Bhima and Arjuna . (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/04)

The big-big bow indicate that to handle those is not an easy task, it require great strength to use them, they have higher range of target with big velocity, those who handle these are not simple, they are strong as Bhima and expert as Arjuna in art of war.

Auyudhana was student of Arjuna and was in Narayani Army of Lord Krishna, after handing over Narayani Army to Duryodhana, he resigned and joint Pandava. He survived in Mahabharata War and lateron died in battle among the Yadavas. The purpose of Duryodhana to take name of Auyudhana in first was to convey that Arjuna has build cadre and using them against his own Guru.

Thereafter, cleverly before taking the name of Drupada, he mentioned the name of Virata, so that Guru Dronacarya shall not doubt over him that he is provoking him.

Karavas has the grievances that due to Virata their brave Susharma was humiliated, once Guru Dronacarya was hypnotised by his temptation weapon and they had to run away living his cows from the battlefield. By taking the name of Virata he is recalling all the embarrassing movments to agitate Guru Dronacarya.

The name of King Drupada is also mentioned. Once when Guru Dronacarya has refered about their friendship, King Drupada has humiliated him saying that he is a King and Guru Dronacarya was a begger, how both can be friend. Due to feeling of resentment, to kill Guru Dronacarya he has perform ritual to have a son who can kill him. Highlighting King Drupada being presence in opposition army was to provoke Guru Dronacarya for revenge.

Heroic fighter like Dhrstaketu, Cekitana, Kasiraja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/05)

Duryodhana continue to counting those who were major stumbling blocks on the path of his victory.

Dhrstaketu denote highly responsible, he is mentioning this as to joke that though father of Dhrstaketu was killed by Lord Krishna in Court filled with people, the fool is siding with Pandava. He was killed by Guru Duryodhana.

Cekitana denote to pull the wandering conscious into Divine Spirit. Most of the army of Yadavs were siding with Karovas, he was expectional few who was siding with Pandavas. He was killed by Duryodhana.

Kasiraja denote conscious form kingdom, He was brave and great leader, his name was take to beware the Guru Dronacarya.

Purujit denote who enable victory over nerves-mind, and Kuntibhoja denote vicrory over feeling by responsibility, both were brothers of mother Kunti. Both were killed by Guru Dronacarya.

and Saibya denote best among the human or true behaviour. He was same as his name and also brave. He was father in law of Yudhisthira, siding with Pandavas.

There are the mighty Yudhamanyu, the very powerful Uttamauhja, the son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupati, all these are great warriors and chariot fighters. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/06)

Duryodhana mentioned further his formidable foces to Guru Dronacarya, as an appeal to be vigilant on the immerging grave situation.

Yudhamanyu denote conscious of mind according to war, mind free from fear, Uttamauhja denote joy of fortune, duty of both were to guard the chariot of Arjuna, in night both were killed by Aswathama.

Abhimanu the son of Subhadra who is sister of Krishna. Abhimanu has learnt structure of Chakrabhue while he was in mother womb. Therefore, caution for Guru Dronacarya while creating Chakrabhue.

Duryodhana has a crush for Draupti, he was offended by the joke of Draupti. She had five sons, all were killed by Aswathama in night while they were sleeping.

All of them are great chariot fighters who are well versed on both art of war and scriptures and can tackle thousand of worriors alone. Such in large number are in army of Pandavas.

O “Divija-Uttam” best of divine-conduct ! Keep in mind the leading warriors of our side, to remind you I will tell you captians of our military force. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/07)

The meaning of acaraya is one who conduct or behave according to the expactation of others, the meaning of divija-uttam is who is best among divine behaving human. The behave of Guru Dronacarya is of high class divine nature.

Duryodhana was panicked watching the determined formidable military force of enemy which has changed the ground reality. The committed support of Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama became cruicial to win the battle with Pandavas, which was earlier expected to be a simple game for him. After briefing the seriousness of situation by explaining the formidable forces assembled under the banner of Pandavas, he is now trying to remind qualified captains of his military force so that no one shall understemate the enemy camp and not expected to maintain any short of negligence and same time restoring the confidance of own camp that their army is not weak in compare to the enemy because of presence of numerber of qualified fighters in his camp. Guru Dronacarya was knowing all the captains of Karavas but Duryodhana is only reminding him, so that the strengths of own army shall be strategically utilised.

The presence of large number of pious people and personally of Divine-God on the side of Pandavas has a great impact upon Duryodhana. Whatsoever powerful material sovereignty might be it cannot be immune from the influence of pious people and Divine-God.

Like you, Bhishma, Karna, Krpa, Asvatthama, Vikarna and son of Somadatta called Bhurisrava, who are always victorious. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/08)

Duryodhana mentioned exceptional heroes who were ever victorious in the battle field upon whom he had proud and highly dependend upon them he had hoped to wipe out Pandavas easily.

Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama were very high hope for Duryodhana, no one in the world were equal to them, he know very well that if they fight with full commitment no one can defeat them in this earth. Bhismapitama was leading a celibacy life and can die only on his own wish so he was overconfidance that no one can kill Bhismapitama. The materialist and ignorance Duryodhana forget to acknowledge that Lord Krishna the Divine-God in the side of Pandavas is immortal and infinite.

The meaning of Bhisma is illusion form of father, life till end, all the armies died but he was alive sevearly wounded. Finally Bhismapitama died as per his own fixed timing. Guru Dronacarya was killed by Dhrstadyumna.

Duryodhana has over confidance upon Karna, he was considering him superior than Arjuna, his belief was that alone his beloved friend Karna can finished Pandavas. Karna was killed by Arjuna.

The meaning of Krpa is one who follow mercy during devotion, Kripa was blessed to be immortal, he has the strength to conquer the entire world. Kripacarya’s twin siste were marraied to Dronacarya. Karovas were enjoying blessing of Krpa.

Asvatthama was son of Guru Dronacarya, blessed with immortal life, thus two immortal were in the side of Karovas, which was of great advantage for them. None such were in the side of Pandavas.

Vikarna was very religious and brave and brother of Duryodhana. His name was taken to counter the claim that all rightful and riligious people were only with Pandavas.

and son of Somadatta called Bhurisrava was also famous for his commitment to religion and had achived victories in many war.

All the name of above mentioned people were taken to console himself and to build confidance of team.

Other than them there is several brave warriors, who are ready to sacrifice their lives, all of them well equipped with different kinds of weapons, and all are experienced in military science. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/09)

Other than whose mentioned in (01/08) there were numeraous talented fighters like Jayadratha, Krtaverma, Salya, Bahik and Bhagdath etc. taking name of all of them is quite difficult. All of them are detemined to lay down their life for the shake of Duryodhana. For the victory for Duryodhana they are ready to sacrifice their life but will never exit from battle field. Duryodhana is obliged to all of them. He is praising their military talent. Guru Dronacarya on listening to Duryodhana does not gave any heed and remain silent. Disapponted Duryodhana drowned in though.

Our military force is incompetent to conquer Pandavas reason is our impartial guard Bhismapitama, whereas army of Pandavas is capable of conquring us reason is their own dedicated guard Bhima (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/10)

Duryodhana is estimating strength of his military as immeasurable but doubting on triumph, because their main guard Bhismapitama being neutral, though he was standing along with Karavas he was undoubtly kind to Pandavas specially he love Yudhisthira who speak always truth and also Arjuna was dear to him,, he was also great devotee of Lord Krishna also, so all these created doubt in the mind of Duryodhana about his sincerity. The division of view in the camp of Karavas, on whether to fight or not to fight war, started casting doubt on the performance of his military force.

Duryodhana was always envious of Bhima, saveral time he was beaten by Bhima and thus has the apprehension that he might be killed by Bhima. The military of Pandavas which were standing highly motivated and coordinated made Duryodhana troubled. And he started believing on the better fortune of Pandavas.

Different affect can be gauged that while watching Pandavsas in battle field Duryodhana rushed to Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama to seek assurance, whereas when Arjuna entered the battle field he immediatelly stood up in chariot with his arm to fight (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/20) and requested Lord Krishna to take him to the middle of the field so that he can see the armies of both (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/21). Such was the level of confidance in the camp of Pandavas.

One can sumup as those who are sinful and unjust under the shelter of material sovereignty they live in fear, those who follow the principle of religion and take shelter of Divine-God they are fearless.

All of you while standing courageous on various strategic battle fields, undoubtly protect Pitamaha Bhisma from all side. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/11)

Now to keep Bhismapitama happy he is stating to all his commanders to protect him from all side as if he is very much concern about him. This is praise of prowess of Bhismapitama, Duryodhana think that as long as Bhismapitama is alive he is unconquerable. Therefore, strategy was instead to fight with Pandavas protect Bhismapitama, he will alone will defeat Pandava. Such was the high stake of Duryodhana upon Bhismapitama. As stated earlier Bhismapitama was illusion for the Karavas.

The intention of Duryodhana was to gain favor of Bhismapitama by showing high regard and concern for him. Actually to protect the life of Bhismapitama was not his main concern, the main concern was the Sikhadi who was female in previous life was fighting from the Pandava side and Bhismapitama still considered Sikandi as female and was totally against to fight agaist women or use any weapon against womem. Therefore Duryodhana had the apprehension that if Sikhadi succeded accessing Bhismapitama, then Bhismapitama will not fight with Sikandi and he will be easily killed. Therefore to protect Bhismapitama from Sikhadi became main strategy and rest will be taken care by Bhismapitama was the expectation.

Then Bhima, the great noble grandsire of Kuru dynasty, the grandfather of the fighters, giving Duryodhana joy, blew his conchshell very loudly, producing a sound like roring of a lion. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/12)

Bhismapitama out of compassion tried to cheer Duryodhana who was disapponted by Guru Dronacarya, and he blewed his conchsell very loudly followed by drum of Karava which only produces fear out of illusion. The rore of lion create fear even from very far distance in the mind of animal, birds and human etc. He tried to pasify his depressed grandson that though Divine-God is in the other side, he will not give ay chance to Pandavas.

Though Bahik was the oldest, Bhismapitama was also elder and knowing both military science and religion and has renounces throne and marraige. He has learnt military science from great Parshuram. Therefore he has been refered as grandsire/ grandparent.

After that, the conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns, were all suddenly sounded, and the combined sound was tumultuous. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/13)

Though Bhismapitama has blew his conchshell to pacify Duryodhana. The team of Karavas thought it is indication of begining of battle, therefore sound of several band party instruments like conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns was heard aloud, making the atmosphare fearfull. How the Pandavas has responded and second part of the question of Dhristadyumna “sons of Pandu did what in battle field” is explained next.

On the other side both Lord Krsna and Arjuna, stationed on a great chariot drawn by white horses, sounded their transcendental conchshells. (Bhagavada-Gita: 01/14)

Arjuna was giufted hundreed white horses by Chitratha, especiality was that population of white hourses remain always hundred inspite of mortality, they can move anywhere in earth and heaven etc. Four out of them were tied with the chariot of Arjuna.

Lord Agni-Fire has gifted Arjuna a divine chariot , which was weightless, can freely move anywhere without obstacle, can carry arms and amunation of nine bullockcards, on the flag of chariot Lord Hanuma was seating.

The beauty of chariot has increased because of presence of Lord Krsna and Arjuna. Lord Krsna and Arjuna both blew divine conchshells denote it influence was beyond material world. A call for establishing divine sovereignty. Thus thrwarting the hope of Duryodhana.

Hrsikesa Omnipresence Lord Krishna blew His conchshell, called Pancajanya; Dhananjay Arjuna blew Devadatta, and Vrikodar Bhimkarma performer of herculean tasks blew terrific conchshell, called Paundra. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/15)

Omnipresence Lord Krishna has been called as Hrsikesa because he is owner of all senses. Here in battlefield he will directly control the senses of Arjuna.He blew His conchshell, called Pancajanya; Pancajanya, which denote he will control five senses as a disciple. Omnipresence Lord Krishna who know everything is going to give decisive direction to Arjuna.

Dhananjay Arjuna blew Devadatta, Arjuna is referred as Dhananjay, because he has won the wealth of world while performing rituals, here Lord Krishna will motivate Arjuna to also conquer senses and attend divine status free from affection-hate.

and Vrikodar Bhima performer of herculean tasks blew terrific conchshell, called Paundra, to communicate his feeling. Bhima is called Vrikodar because he can eat as voraciously and easily digest with with the blessing of ‘agni” fire, and Bhimkarma as he could perform herculean tasks, such as killing the demon Hidimba. All these were very encouraging for solders and declaration for evil doom to lose.

Son of Kunti King Yudhisthira, blew conchshell called Ananta-vijaya, and Nakul and Sahadeva blew the Sughose and Manipuspaka. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/16)

Son of Kunti King Yudhisthira, blew conchshell called Ananta-vijaya. Ananta-vijaya denote that one taking shelter of religion attend infinite Divine-God. He has been referred as King, to aware the Dhrtarastra that due to unwise deceiving policy Pandy were banished, and forecasting that he will soon become King of world.

Yudhisthira, Arjuna and Bhima were sons of Kunti and Nakul and Sahadeva were sons of Madri.

Nakul and Sahadeva blew the Sughose and Manipuspaka. The meaning of Sughose is as divine law is established the ill-fortune start diminishing. Manipuspaka denote every breath has been considered precious like diamond and has been consciously dedicated to Divine-God by people like saint.

The whole catastrophe was due to Kind Dhrtarastra, because his silent approval to the evil policy of Karavas.

That great archer the King of Kasi, the great fighter Sikhadi, Dhrstadyumna, Virata, unconquerable Satyaki. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/17)

That great archer the King of Kasi, the great fighter Sikhadi, Dhrstadyumna, Virata, unconquerable Satyaki were participating from the side of Pandavas. Kasi is state of conscious attend when human fastened nerves-mind and concentrate upon kaya and become eligible to dwell in divine-god. He was inhabiting divine world.

The meaning of Sikhadi is renouncer. The meaning of Dhrstadyumna is determined and invariable, conscious always focused on principle of religion. Sikhadi was female in previous birth, Arjuna keeping in front Sikhadi has fought with Bhismapitama knowing that Bhismapitama will not fight with Sikhadi.

Virata denote one who has the ability of visualizing spread of Divine-God, Satyaki signify one who has the nature to reflect the truth. All of them will not allow Pandava to defeat.

King Drupada, the five sons of Draupadi, and the others such as the mighty-armed son of Subhadra Abhimanu , O King all blew their respective conchshells. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/18)

Drupada denote invariable of stable mind, the five sons of Draupadi were great instrument in devotion for war, , and the others such as the mighty-armed son of Subhadra Abhimanu, when mind is free from fear his arm reach far distance, he was killed in chakrabhue, after killing several formidable enemies. All of them from all sides blew their respective conchshells which were heard far away. Human cover few distance by own, if he get the blessing of Divine-God he cover extra distance.

An amusing vibrating sound from the conchshells of Pandavas started blowing across the earth and sky, it shattered the hearts of sons of Dhrtarastra who has ceases the territory of Pandavas by deception. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/19)

Sanjaya following the noble courtesy, avoided directly telling the name of Duryodhana etc. He tactfully, meaningfully and impressively stated that hearing the heart breaking sound of the conchshells of Pandavas , all those who had deceive with Pandava were frightened and demoralized who were earlier excited for the war. The unjust and anti-religion deed ultimately made Karavas weak by heart or moral.

The sound of conchshells of Karavas has failed to create any impact upon the highly motivated military force of Pandava assembled in battlefield to fight with unjust and anti religion forces. One who takes the shelter of Divine-God has nothing to fear, even in the midst of the greatest calamity. Announcement of steadily ceasing of ill-fortune and arriving of good-fortune started flowing.

Pledge of Arjuna

O King Dhrtarastra ! Arjuna seated in the chariot bearing the flag marked with Hanuman, looking at opponent military ready for war, took up his bow and arrows and spoke to Lord Krisna these words. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/20)

Although Bhismapitama has blew conchshell to appease Duryodhana, it was misunderstood as announcement for beginning of war, therefore military of Karavas took their position for war. Accordingly Padavas also get ready without any fear. Arjuna also stood up with his Gandav bow. These manifest that Duryodhana is under fear and Arjuna is fearless and positive on the outcome.

Hanumana has blessed Bhima that during war he will seat in the flag of chariot of Arjuna and he will also roar whenever Bhima will roar which will be heartbreaking for enemies.

Lord Hanumana is free from feeling of honor-humiliation and sensual material desires, and he has abandoned “rag” affection therefore he is called “Berag”, therefore renunciation is the nature of flag, displaying divine power.

The emblem of Hanumana on the flag of Arjuna is clear sign of victory. Hanumana has played crucial role in assisting Rama in defeating Ravana. In addition to it, Lord has assured victory for his devotee Arjuna in such auspicious conditions with his good counsel.

Arjuna said ! O infallible one, please placed my chariot in between the armies of both. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/21)

Though Lord Krishna was performing the role of charioteer and as charioteer of His friend, He had to carry out command to place the chariot at the center, nevertheless Arjuna has addressed Him as infallible, acknowledging the Supreme Position of Lord Krishna in all circumstances, and that He is perfect, flawless and infinite. It is his great fortunate that he is enjoying the blessing of Supreme Lord. Divine-God never hesitates to serve His true devotees.

Till I had a proper look upon the rival armies standing with the desire to fight, moreover to know with whom I shall compete in this war-mission. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/22)

Pandava were peace loving does not wanted war and has made several sincere efforts for peacemaking but in vain, war was forced upon Pandava due to obstinacy of Duryodhana. Therefore Arjuna was anxious to look into all those who were siding demand of unwanted war.

A true friend is who aware his friend about the worldly and heavenly consequences of his evil thought and deed. However the so called friends of Duryodhana have only fueled the obsessed unjust anti-religious desires of Duryodhana.

Arjuna wanted to estimate the strength and motivation of enemy willing to fight to formulate his own expected role. How and with whom he should prefer to fight.

All those kings who have joined war to benefit the evil-minded son of Dhrtarastra, I like to observe those excited fighters. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/23)

Duryodhana wanted to seize the kingdom Pandava with wickedness, on which he was enjoying support of his father Dhrtarastra. Arjuna wanted to appraise the situation by identifying ally of Karavas in battlefield and their strengths, who were supporting anti-religion and unjust forces.

Duryodhana through conspiracy several times has made attempt to finish Pandava and humiliate them on often thwart all norms. Arjuna was confidence that all those who are siding with unjust and anti-religion will not be able to stand against them.

All those who fight war with excessive attachment and hate are degraded as per the law of religion.

Pledge of Sanjaya

Sanjaya said: O descendent of Bharat! Having thus addressed by Gundakesa, the Lord Hrsikesa, directed the chariot in the midst of the armies of both parties. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/24)

Arjuna has been refereed as Gundakesa, who sleep at will, has absolute control over the sleep and laziness as a clever warrior. Other meaning is free from darkness or ignorance, here as incident will develop it will appear that Arjuan still has family affection thus ignorance of his responsible deed in this crucial situation. Which was removed by the sermon of Divine-God.

The Lord Krishna has been called Hrsikesa, the owner of nerves-senses-mind the glory of Divine-God is such that one who is in divine conscious he become automatically free from nerves-senses-mind.

The Divine-God is always happy to obey the devotee who is free from sleep and laziness and he love who is free from affection-hate and perform unattached responsible deed with any expectation of personal gain.

Lord Krishna drove the best chariot to the centre of battle field, in front all the Kings ruling over the world.

Deliberately standing chariot in front of the Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama and other Kings, Lord Krishna provocatively said take a look at families of Kurus assembled here. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/25)

Pandava and Karavas both were decedent of Kuru dynasty. Looking upon the family member turned enemy, will awaken family relation and considering blood bath within family will become week point and obstacle for Arjuna in performing his responsibility under war circumstance. This development will be taken as an opportunity to deliver sermon for liberation of human in any circumstances by performing responsibility deed unattached from affection, hate, material-joy and accumulation. The bonding nature of “they belong to me, they does not belong to me” deviate from even nature of human and performing responsibility honestly.

The real devotee free from affection, hate, greed, angry and violence etc. abnormalities never deviate from performing responsibility in any favorable and adverse condition.

Thereafter Arjuna glance at his parents, grandparents, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends and also his fathers-in-law and well-wishers presence in both parties. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/26)

On the midst of battlefield through quick look Arjuna identified various relatives and friends etc. presence in both the camps. He identified Bhurisrava who was contemporaries to his father, grandparent Bhishma and Somadatta, teachers like Dronacarya and Krpacarya, material uncle like Salya and Sakuni, brothers like Duryodhana, sons like Laksmana, friends like Asvatthama, well-wishers like Krtavarma, etc. He saw many friends in both the armies.

Every simple human who belief in religion or heaven and hell think to attend heaven along with relatives and friends, not by killing them, here open hearted Arjuna is visualizing entire world presence in bloodbath war and expecting the consequences he is worry.

When the son of Kunti, Arjuna, saw entire companion he spoke in overwhelmed kindness. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/27)

The compassioned Arjuna was unhappy to think of killing of large number of people close to all of them. He though irrespective to our camp or Duryodhana camp all those who will die, they will be belonging to them. In all the cases it will their loss only. Thinking these the determination for war ceases and was replaced by cowardly feeling, as termed by Divine-God in Bhagavad-Gita: 02/2–3, and excepted by Arjuna in Bhagavad-Gita: 02/07.

Arjuna was kindhearted but not cowardly from the beginning, the disturb Arjuna was engulfed in abnormal nature, in which he has develop sympathy which those who were always willing to harm sinfully him and his family and citizen, though they were close relatives and friends, however for the namesake only (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/34,46). The newly acquired nature can be easily abandoned. And this was facilitated by the sermon of Divine-God later on.

Pledge of Arjuna

Arjuna speaks -O Krishna! My body is becoming standstill and mouth is drying while watching in front relatives in fighting spirit. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/28)

The feeling, concern and vision of Dhrtarastra and Arjuna is different. The concern and vision of Dhrtarastra was distinguishing His sons and sons of Pandu. He was worry about the death and future of his son ignorance the right of son of his brother Pandu. Whereas Arjuna is considering entire relatives and friends as his own irrespective to divided into hostile camps, and is concerning about their fate.

Arjuna at once overwhelmed by compassion seeing his kinsmen, friends and relatives on the battlefield become concerned and sympathetic foreseeing their imminent deaths, even those who were in rival camps. And on thinking the eventual results, the limbs of his body began to quiver, and his mouth become dry. As if he was astonish watching relatives and crying due to soft heartedness and presently develop illusion and sympathy which was becoming weakness in performing his expected role in such bewildering situation.

My whole body is trembling, my hair is standing on end, my bow Gandiva is slipping from my hand, and my skin is burning. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/29)

Arjuna came to battlefield to teach befitting lesson to Duryodhana and his ally, however seeing large number to relatives and friends and the possible rampage carnage in battlefield, he become week hearted, and so impatient that his famous bow Gandiva from which enemies were afraid, started slipping from his hands and his body temperature increases causing burning sensation in body and heir of body were straight tight out of possible loss of life.

I am unable to stand any longer in these circumstances, My mind is reeling, I am forgetting myself. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/30)

Arjuna who lacks material gratification in contradiction to Duryodhana, he was losing sense of control and was feeling as if he will feint and collapse. Arjuna only envisaged painful reverses in the battlefield, which made him fearful and loss of mental equilibrium, due to his attachment with family relations. He perceiving frustration from the expected results of war started thinking why he is standing in meaningless, unwarranted, and sinful war. The victory in battlefield will be only lamentation for him. Arjuna is victim of material pain because thought he was follower of Divine-God he was still in materialistic mind bonded with affection to some extent, due to which he was also afraid after watching the grand form of Divine-God.

O Keshav! The sign of war looked in opposite, I do not see any good fortune from killing own relatives. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/31)

The reeling of mind and trembling of body, and whisper of birds and animal, earthquake and untimely solar eclipse etc. are signs considered of misfortune be some. Actually whatever he was feeling in the battlefield was not sign of misfortune rather he was abnormalities of nerves-senses-mind caused by disturbance of Arjuna in expectation of misery from war.

Here Lord Krishna has been called as Keshav. The motivation during the performance of deed work as an encouraging factor, but when at the beginning of work if motivation is broken and mind lack determination and option than its affect is not good. Arjuna is addressing to Divine-Lord that he does not see any good fortune by killing relatives in war. To kill relative or to finish own family is considered as sine and journey to hell. Therefore it is not worldly and heavenly beneficial.

Arjuna under affection has actually forgotten the moral codes for a ksatriya. Arjuna is reluctant to kill his enemies, because unfortunately they belong to his family. He thinks that by killing of his kingsmen will not bring happiness in his life, therefore, not willing to fight just as a person who does not feel hungry is not inclined to cook.

O Krishna I neither want victory, nor state and happiness. O Govinda! For us what benefits are from state, material-joy or alive? (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/32)

The victory in the war will empower Pandava on the thrown of vast kingdom of world. Pandavas lack material gratification, no desire to enjoy kingdom, thus victory and kingdom were not very much attractive for them. Question like how long they will rule after killing rival relatives? And state is for relatives and people, what is use of state after losing relatives and people? etc. were burning in the mind of Arjuna. He was thinking that in opposite it will cause worry and sin. When there is no desire to enjoy kingdom than what satisfaction the kingdom will deliver? Why they should fight for kingdom?

For those whom craving kingdom, material-joy and happiness, they all are standing in battle abandoning optimism for wealth and live. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/33)

The Padavas has no material gratification, they wanted to win kingdom and dedicate it to the well-being of the relatives, friends and people. Apprehending loss of numerous relatives and people, the war becomes meaningless and fruitless for Arjuna.

The climax of war was such that it was implicit that barely few fortunate one will survive and only those who will survive can only enjoy wealth and life. In other words people were participating in war abandoning all hopes. Therefore perceived hopeless war was futile.

Teachers, Parents, sons, grandparents, maternal uncle, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brother-in-law and other relatives etc. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/34)

Arjuna is recalling all those relatives who are presence in battlefield, whom he has to kill in order to win the kingdom.

Arjuna was hesitating to kill teachers whom he was supposed to respect them, serve them and seek blessing from them. The parents are their body how in angry or hate he will kill them. To guard the children of his and relative is his duty or religion how he can dare to even harm them. His responsibility is to facilitate happiness to grandparents, remove their pain and sorrow. The maternal uncles are respectful as our mothers who have nurtured us. The fathers-in-law are father of wife of our brothers, they are alike our fathers, how to think to kill them? The grand-sons deserve more care than our sons. The brothers-in-law are also special, they are always helpful in needs. Other relatives are also very much importance. They cannot be simply annihilated.

O Madhusudana! Even though they might otherwise kill me, or in exchange for three worlds I do not wish to kill them. Then leave about the earth. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/35)

Arjuna is discussion with Divine-God that if he come on the way of against party which is Karawas, they will like to remove the obstacle by killing him, if he withdraw from the war and allow Karavas to enjoy the world then also there is possibility that without any reason they might want to finished him, in that case also he is not willing to fight with them, rather he will prefer to lay down his life.

Arjuna is proclaiming that since lord Krishna has killed giant Madhu and many others such giants he is called Madhusudana, however Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama etc. are not giants, how he can suppose to kill them?

Generally people indulge in war to achieve some desires or to avert misfortune. People get angry from all those who cause obstacle in realizing their material desires, greed and accumulation or causing misfortunes.

He is further advocating that even if he gets three worlds by killing brothers and relatives, though it is not at all possible, he will prefer to quit the war. Then earth is no worth for him to take life of brothers and relatives and others.

When situation is demanding from Arjuna to abandon affection especially affection with family in order to perform responsible-deed or virtue and attend divine world, he become restless. The vision of Arjuna at this moment was limited to material sovereignty. He was thinking three worlds as also subject of material-joy. He was not aware the truth beyond the material world. As incident develop on consoling by Divine-God Arjuna has abandoned rag-hate, and become Anurag.

Arjuna was reluctant, does not wanted to retaliate against his miscreant cousins’ brothers to reclaim the inherited kingdom. However the following chapter will disclose that Divine-God does not pardon any miscreant who harms His devotee and Duryodhana and his entire ally have been banished in the resolution of cosmic. Arjuna will have to merely act as an agent if he refused to do so, there were many others ready to fight, and any among them can be used by Divine-God.

You have taken Ruma the wife of younger brother, and enjoyed her as wife, If a king does not punish a sinner, then he himself became sinful. It is for this reason that I promised to kill you and thus enabled Sugrava to regain his wife. Bali felt shame for his abominable actions.

O Janardhan ! What happiness we will derive by killing sons of Dhrtarastra? We will invite only sins by killing those aggressors. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/36)

Krishna is called Janardhan as he is Lord of prosperity. Arjuna has depicted two reasons in previous stanza (01/35) for not killing wrongdoer brothers. Here he is trying to justify not retaliating on account of possible serious impact or result.

Arjuna is perceiving that if influenced by angry and desire for kingdom aggrieved Pandava kills Karavas, when angry and desire will subsidies then only grief, pain and misfortune will remain for waging meaningless war. The kingdom and pleasure derived therefrom are not sustainable. The sins of eliminating family will cause tremendous pains in hell.

The aggressor Karavas has executed conspiracy to burn alive Pandavas in Lakshagrihi. They have poisoned Bhimsen and have thrown him into water. They with arms in hand are always ready to kill Pandavas. They have ceases kingdom of Pandavas by cheating in gambling. They have openly humiliated Draupadi in full court. Jaidraths motivated by Duryodhana etc. has kidnapped Draupadi. The scriptures recommend strain punishment of such aggressors, even if they are own relatives.

Those who adopt unjust policy for achieving just or unjust desire which cause harm to the rights of others are called aggressor. In spiritual world lust or material-desire, angry, greed and affection etc. those who are obstacle in realizing own soul-form are aggressor.

Arjuna bonded with affection is thinking that it is better to disassociate with the aggressor’s brothers than to killing own kinsmen and inviting sin. Although an administrator should to be saintly but not cowardly. For example Lord Rama was incredibly Saintly but never hesitated in punishing aggressors. Which is unparallel in the history.

O Madhav-Lord of fortune ! Therefore we are not authorized to kill own kinsmen sons of Dhrtarastra, because how could we be happy by killing our own kinsmen? (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/37)

Here Arjuna bonded with bodily relation is stating war is totally unwarranted. Kinsmen are manifested among the enemies in the vision of Arjuna. Only affection and ignorance give importance to bodily relation.

The reasons perceived by Arjuna for not engaging in war (01:28–36), and reflecting upon those, he is questioning why to participate in battle to combat with relatives which is totally unjustifiable? How good people like Pandavs should do so? The expectation of death of kinsmen is causing grief and pain for Arjuna. For him war will cause misfortune and sin.

Arjuna is not able to acknowledge his duty of being ksatriya, in political emergency. His affection with family is suppressing his intelligence and conscious, which is only further aggravation his affection and obsession with family which is diluting his conscious in realizing his responsibility.

Out of consciousness infected with greedily they are not recognizing sin cause by devastation of kinsmen and confrontation with friends, though. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/38)

Here Arjuna is clarifying that he is becoming emotional because the enemies are none other than his own brothers, relatives and friends etc. Therefore he is thinking to withdraw from the battle. On the other hand they are also relatives of Duryodhana etc. but Karavas are adamant to fight war.

Conscious driven by the desires to acquire more and more material possession like wealth, property and honor etc. is greed. Duryodhana is not acknowledging the downfall of family because his conscious is infected by greed. He infected by greed is only visualizing kingdom and only kingdom, ignoring the sins cause by devastation of family. It is known fact that wars always cause ruin of life, time, wealth and property, energy, peace and relations etc.

The kingdom and associated happiness are pleasant only in opportunity and on depart they only cause scarcity and pain. The feeling of material-joy is only due to abnormality, if abnormalities like affection, hate, desire, greed, angry and violence etc. ceases world for human become neutral free from happy and sorrow. The abnormalities cause suppression of intelligence-intuition.

O Janardhana! We who know the crime in destroying a family, shall engage in these acts of sin? (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/39)

Arjuna is not considering himself as less knowledgeable then Lord Krishna, therefore he is conveying teaching to Supreme Lord. All new devotees think that they know a lot and try to argue with Divine-God even when they are under shelter of Divine-God.

Arjuna is proclaiming that he and Lord Krishna are wise they shall think over the faultiness in ruining family. Though, the same was not expected from greedy Duryodhana.

The pain and sorrow given by relatives and friends is not such ill factor, this will only create opportunity to purify us from previous sin, if we reflect upon it and consciously abandon affection-hate and happy-sorrow etc. However, if we have hostility or hate feeling, then it will remain with us even after death, it will motivate us to commit sin, causing downfall death after death.

Here Arjuna was aware about the abnormality in greed form in Duryodhana, and he was feeling proud that he is wise and has concern about family fortune, in which he was not able to accept his own abnormality of affection with family.

A ksatriya or solder is suppose to fight battle on the demand or situation or compelled by rival party.

The traditional sustainable religious practices in family ceases when ancestors vanish, on diminishing of religion sin spread in entire family. (Bhagavad_gita: 01/40)

The elders in family are responsible to help members to grow properly, attend spiritual value, and thus purify the members since birth to death. Here Arjuna is assuming that on loss of elders who play critical role in establishing tradition culture and value, the remaining members may develop irreligious habits, get engage in sinful acts, will do which is not suppose to do and will not do which is suppose to do in absent of guidance.

All the prominent members of the Kuru dynasty were participating in war without hope of survival. They were the responsible for tradition of dynasty. Hence in absent of them the remaining members mostly women and children are left without guidance, who does not know moral and value can conduct anti religion deed and sin might spread in family.

Here Arjuna is considering family practices and religion as “Sanatan” sustainable religion.

O Descendent of Varsni! When irreligion is predominant in the family, the women of the family become polluted and degradation of womanhood bring “varnashankar”. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/41)

Peace and prosperity prevail in society and state when spiritual progress take place in life of human. The chastity and faithfulness of womanhood is the foundation of any ethical society. Many feel that children are very much prone to be misled and women are weak sex and vulnerable to aggression and exploitation which ultimately degrade the society. Therefore, it is duty of elders, society and state to protect the children and women. Further, different family tradition, religious practices and national functions shall always engage them, for the sanitization of the generations and uncorrupted society.

The internal nerves-senses-mind gets clean following the principle of religion. When human internal nerves-mind is clean his intelligence is awaken and his conscious become divine. On the contrary when irreligion increases, conduct or character become corrupted, and mentality become “Tamsh” demonaic or ignorance and human assumed irresponsible deed as responsible deed and responsible deed as iresponsible deed, socity start flowing against the norm of religion. Many philosphers fear that this opposite mind spoil the women.

Arjuna is addressing Lord Krishna as descendent of Varsni, which has been delibaratelly called to aware Lord Krishna to attract the members in right direction and protect the family and ensure spiritual salvation. Scholars of materialist world think that misleadings and adultaration are the main corrupt or damage whereas Divine-God has clarifyed that when devotee existing in his soul-form create illusion in the process of devotion is adultration, corruption, fraud and downfall etc.

The tainted generation become cause of facilitating family slayer and soul of ancesters to hell. The soul of family massacrer fall down for not offering food and water to “Pitra”them. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/42)

There is tradition that desendants offer food and water preodically to the departed souls of familiy on the belief that it liberate them from all sinful reactions. One who is envolve in devotional life restrain from performing such activities on the assumption that their devotion is enough to get free from all kinds of misery (Bagavatam11/5.41) Such obligations are automatically fulfilled by perfromance of devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

Arjuna has apprehension that foul generation is born in violation of social norms thus they desist from following social norms, rather function against the tradition of family. On the destruction of tradition of family the entire family ascend to hell.

The family-religion and caste-religion of long time are devastated by those mistakes causing family corrupt. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/43)

The war causing elimination of entire family also destroy the family tradition and religion practices which is suppose to keep members in the righteous path or ultimate salvation. The irreligion increases in the family when family tradition and religion ceases. Those increasing irreligions mislead or corrupt the women of family. Which corrupt the entire family. Therefore, breaking the traditional religion and practices, suppose to be good brings chose in society, and consequently people forget the aim of life, those who break the tradition are called blind and following them only cause misery in society.

O Janardhana-maintainer of people! We have been hearing from disciple succession that human whose family traditions are destroyed dwell always in hell. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/44)

The arguments of Arjuna are based on what people have been hearing from family and community authorities, not on personal observations. That is a main traditional way of receiving knowledge and belief. One cannot reach to the right points unless guided by the right person or referring true scriptures or using reasoning power and intelligence gifted by Divine-God to everyone.

The scriptures advise that one who has been engaged in sinful activities throughout his life should must undergoes through the process of prayascitta-atonement while he is alive otherwise be ready to be transferred to hellish planets to experiences miserable lives.

Divine-God has given reasoning power and intelligence to human-being to perform new-new good deeds. However in attachment with greed and material-joy human discard intelligence and intuition and in affection-hate commit sinful deed against the norm of family and scriptures and invite own downfall.

Alas! It is strange and regrettable that being wise and intelligence we are prepare to commit greatly sinful acts, we intend to kill our own kinsmen driven by the desire to enjoy royal happiness. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/45)

Demoniac human kill their own brothers, relatives and friends to achieve selfish motive. Arjuna was devotee of Lord Krishna, and considers such deed as sinful and thus trying to avoid such sinful war and was considering this will be an act of virtue.

Arjuna was thinking that Duryodhana is attached with lust and material-joy therefore he is not looking at religion, not behaving as responsible, however Arjuna and his associated know religion-irreligion, responsibility-irresponsibility and virtue-sin etc. therefore it is surprising and regrettable that they decided to to fight great sinful war with own relatives and friends. A wise and responsible person is supposed not to allow such incidents to occur. A man is condemned who ignore good though and does not prohibit ill-deed.

Actually Arjuna was thinking that his reflection or feeling on the fault of process of war and to withdraw from it is in line with religion, but he was ignorance to his own affection with family, therefore he was surprise and regret on the earlier decision to fight with Duryodhana who was a great dictator.

If sons of Dhrtarastra with weapon in hand kill me in unarmed and unresisting position, still that death will be considered well-being for me. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/46)

According to the fighting principle, an unarmed and unwilling foe should not be attack. The sympathy of Arjuna that even if attacked by the enemy he will not retaliate is the symptoms of his soft-heartedness and affection with family. He as a final verdict was ready to sacrifice his life to save the family and nation from bloodbath of war.

Arjuna argument is based on the assumption that id Pandavas withdraw from war, then perhaps Duryodhana and his allies will also prefer to quit battle-field payning the path of peace and protection of lives. Even though in excitement if they kill him he will prefer withdrawal of Pandavas from battle-field. The reasons which Arjuna was explaining against the war had great influence upon him.

The world might consider the justification of Arjuna against the war as acceptable and in larger benefit in of the world from one side of perspective. However, when dictatorship of Duryodhana and his allies, degraded court in which people are not allowed to oppose prohibited deeds and speak truth and miseries are examine then it become responsibility of the all concern people to dethrone him if even need great sacrifices of lives and wealth.

Pledge of Sanjaya

Sanajaya said- Stating thus cast aside his bow and arrors, Arjuna overwhelmed with grief sat down on the chariot. (Bhagavad-Gita: 01/47)

When Lord Krishna park the chariot in front of Guru Dronacarya and Bhismapitama, Arjuna who had come to battle field with full spirit to fight war, out of family affection become disturb on thinking possible loss of lives of family and decided not to fight. He afflicted with lamentation satdown again.